Switzerland Organization For Portable Battery Recycling

Switzerland Organization For Portable Battery Recycling

Last Updated on Fri, 27 Oct 2017 |
Rechargeable Batteries

^ The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper).

Printed in The Netherlands.


About 40 billion batteries were produced in the year 2000 and this number is increasing at approximately 5% annually. A large number of these batteries contain hazardous materials. Batteries also contain significant quantities of important materials. Consequently the uncontrolled disposal of batteries presents both a major risk to health and the environment and a significant waste of valuable material resources. Recognizing the importance of controlling battery waste disposal, worldwide government and industry efforts have been initiated to collect and recycle such wastes.

Led by the OECD member states, legislation has been put in place mandating the collection and recycling of cadmium, lead and mercury batteries. Industry organizations have been established for the purpose of educating the consumer and developing collection/recycling programs. We may mention the Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) and the

Rechargeable Battery Recycling

Corporation (RBRC) in the U.S.A., and the European Portable Battery Association (EPBA) and CollectNiCad in Europe. As a consequence of these laws and programs, increasing quantities of spent batteries are being collected and recycled.

Recycling batteries

with their varied chemistries is a difficult task. The success of the industry in meeting this challenge has been important to the advancement of this effort.

We wish to express our deep gratitude to the contributors of the various chapters of this book and to the organizations and companies that have provided us general information and encouragement. Many of these groups have also contributed on a regular basis to the annual congresses organized first in the U.S.A. by one of us (S.P. Wolsky) – Seminar on Battery Waste Management – and later by others in Europe – Battery Recycling Congress.

Our goal has been to present in one volume a systematic and updated summary of the important aspects of the battery waste issue. As such this book will be of interest to all those working in this important field.

G. Pistoia


S.P. Wolsky

List of Contributors

J. DAVID, SNAM, 9 rue de la Garenne, F-38074, Saint Quentin Fallavier, France

N. ENGLAND, The Portable Rechargeable Battery Association, 1000 Parkwood Circle, Atlanta, GA 30339, U.S.A.

K. FUJIMOTO, Portable Rechargeable Battery Committee, Battery Association of Japan, Kikai, Shinkou Kaikan Building 5F, 3-5-8 Siba-Kouen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0011, Japan

R. JUNGST, Lithium Battery R&D Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM87185-0613, U.S.A.

W. McLAUGHLIN, Solid Team Inc., 148 Limestone, Claremont, CA 91711, U.S.A.

D.G. MILLER, Toxco Inc., 3200 E. Frontera, Anaheim, CA 92806, U.S.A.

K. L. MONEY, Inmetco, 245 Portersville Road, P.O. Box 720, Ellwood City, PA 16117, U.S.A.

H. MORROW, International Cadmium Association, 9222 Jeffery Road, P.O. Box 924, Great Falls, VA 22066-0924, U.S.A.

E. PAOLUCCI, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy

A. PESCETELLI, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy

A. TINE’, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy

N. WATSON, EPBA, Hazelwick Avenue, Crawley, Mallory House, West Sussex RH 10 1FQ, Great Britain

D.B. WEINBERG, Howrey Simon Arnold & White, 1299 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20004, U.S.A.

J.-P. WIAUX, Titalyse SA, 54bis Route des Acacias, CH-1227 Carouge, Geneva, Switzerland

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Environmental and Human Health Impact Assessments of

Battery Systems 1

Recondition Batteries Australia, Recondition Batteries Norway, Recondition Batteries New Zealand, Recondition Batteries USA, Recondition Batteries Sweden, Recondition Batteries South Africa, Recondition Batteries Switzerland, Recondition Batteries Canada, Recondition Batteries Ireland, Recondition Batteries United Kingdom, Recondition Batteries Mexico

H. Morrow

Abstract 1

Introduction 2

Battery Raw Materials Production 5

Manufacture of Battery Systems 10

Use and Maintenance of Battery Systems 15

Disposal of Spent Batteries 17

Environmental and Human Health Impact Assessments 22

Cycle Life Analysis of Battery Systems 26

Conclusions 31

References 32

Chapter 2. Portable

Rechargeable Batteries

in Europe: Sales,

Uses, Hoarding, Collection and Recycling 35

Introduction 35

The European Market of Portable Rechargeable Batteries 39

Hoarding of Portable Rechargeable Batteries 43

Batteries in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) 61

Collection of Spent Rechargeable Batteries 66

Collection Efficiency and Recycling Rate 76

Conclusions 81

References 83

Chapter 3.

Battery Collection

and Recycling in Japan 87

K. Fujimoto

Introduction 87

Treatment of Spent Primary Dry Cells 88

Recycling of Spent Lead-

Acid Batteries


Collection and Recycling Activities for Portable Rechargeable

Batteries 94

Chapter 4. Ni-Cd Battery Collection and Recycling Programs in the U.S.A.

and Canada 105

N. England, D.B. Weinberg, K.L. Money and H. Morrow

Introduction 105

The environmental issues 106

The NiCd Battery Recycling Problem 108

The Industry NiCd Battery Recycling Program 109

The INMETCO NiCd Battery Recycling Process 113

Chapter 5. Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ni-Cd Batteries 119

N. England

Introduction and Principal Findings 119

The Nature and Implications of Rechargeable Ni-Cd Battery

Distribution 121

Ni-Cd Battery Recycling Esperiences Within the OECD 123

The RBRC Program – Canada and the U.S 136

Lessons Learned § Recommendations for Action 137

Chapter 6. Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Treatments 147 J. David

Background 147

Treatment of Nickel Cadmium Batteries 150

1. Types of Process 150

2. Specific Processes for the Treatment of

Nickel Cadmium Batteries 155

Today’s Battery Recycling Companies 162

1. Europe 162

3. Korea 171

4. Japan 172

Conclusion 174

Chapter 7. Primary Battery Recycling in Europe 177

N. Watson

Battery Definition 177

Battery Collection 177

Battery Recycling 191

Battery Sorting 199

Integrating with Existing Recycling Operations 209

Conclusions 222

References 223

Chapter 8. Lead-Acid Batteries 225

A. Pescetelli, E. Paolucci and A. Tine

Introduction 225

The Environmental and Health Impact 225

Economical Aspects 228

Lead Accumulator Structure 230

The Collection of Spent Batteries 234

Comparison With Other Countries of the European Union 239

Collection Modes and Recycling Techniques 251

Conclusions 261

Chapter 9. Recycling The Lithium Battery D.G. Miller and W. McLaughlin

Introduction 263

Background 263

The Hazards and Safety Aspects of Recycling

Lithium Batteries 267

Environmental Concerns of

Recycling Lithium Batteries


Sorting, Packaging, Storage, and Transporting of Lithium

Batteries for Recycling 274

Lithium Battery Recycling Technologies 277

The Toxco’s Background and Processing Method 279

Two of Toxco’s Typical Chemical Analyses 282

Conclusion 291

Chapter 10. Recycling of Electric

Vehicle Batteries


R.G. Jungst

Introduction 295

Electric Vehicle

/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries 297

General Recycling Issues, and Drivers 304

Existing Methods for EV Battery Recycling 308

Optimized Recycling Processes for Advanced Batteries 317

Recycling Prospects for Future Advanced Batteries 320

Summary 322

References 324

Appendix A. Most Common Types of Commercial Batteries 329

Appendix B. Main Legislation on Battery Waste in the U.S.A. and E.U. 341

Subject Index 369

Used Battery

Collection and Recycling G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux and S.P. Wolsky (Editors) ©2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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