Switzerland Organization For Portable Battery Recycling
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About 40 billion batteries were produced in the year 2000 and this number is increasing at approximately 5% annually. A large number of these batteries contain hazardous materials. Batteries also contain significant quantities of important materials. Consequently the uncontrolled disposal of batteries presents both a major risk to health and the environment and a significant waste of valuable material resources. Recognizing the importance of controlling battery waste disposal, worldwide government and industry efforts have been initiated to collect and recycle such wastes.
Led by the OECD member states, legislation has been put in place mandating the collection and recycling of cadmium, lead and mercury batteries. Industry organizations have been established for the purpose of educating the consumer and developing collection/recycling programs. We may mention the Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) and the
Rechargeable Battery Recycling
Corporation (RBRC) in the U.S.A., and the European Portable Battery Association (EPBA) and CollectNiCad in Europe. As a consequence of these laws and programs, increasing quantities of spent batteries are being collected and recycled.
with their varied chemistries is a difficult task. The success of the industry in meeting this challenge has been important to the advancement of this effort.
We wish to express our deep gratitude to the contributors of the various chapters of this book and to the organizations and companies that have provided us general information and encouragement. Many of these groups have also contributed on a regular basis to the annual congresses organized first in the U.S.A. by one of us (S.P. Wolsky) – Seminar on Battery Waste Management – and later by others in Europe – Battery Recycling Congress.
Our goal has been to present in one volume a systematic and updated summary of the important aspects of the battery waste issue. As such this book will be of interest to all those working in this important field.
List of Contributors
J. DAVID, SNAM, 9 rue de la Garenne, F-38074, Saint Quentin Fallavier, France
N. ENGLAND, The Portable Rechargeable Battery Association, 1000 Parkwood Circle, Atlanta, GA 30339, U.S.A.
K. FUJIMOTO, Portable Rechargeable Battery Committee, Battery Association of Japan, Kikai, Shinkou Kaikan Building 5F, 3-5-8 Siba-Kouen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0011, Japan
R. JUNGST, Lithium Battery R&D Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM87185-0613, U.S.A.
W. McLAUGHLIN, Solid Team Inc., 148 Limestone, Claremont, CA 91711, U.S.A.
D.G. MILLER, Toxco Inc., 3200 E. Frontera, Anaheim, CA 92806, U.S.A.
K. L. MONEY, Inmetco, 245 Portersville Road, P.O. Box 720, Ellwood City, PA 16117, U.S.A.
H. MORROW, International Cadmium Association, 9222 Jeffery Road, P.O. Box 924, Great Falls, VA 22066-0924, U.S.A.
E. PAOLUCCI, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy
A. PESCETELLI, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy
A. TINE’, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy
N. WATSON, EPBA, Hazelwick Avenue, Crawley, Mallory House, West Sussex RH 10 1FQ, Great Britain
D.B. WEINBERG, Howrey Simon Arnold & White, 1299 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20004, U.S.A.
J.-P. WIAUX, Titalyse SA, 54bis Route des Acacias, CH-1227 Carouge, Geneva, Switzerland
Table of Contents
List of Contributors
Chapter 1. Environmental and Human Health Impact Assessments of
Battery Systems 1
Battery Raw Materials Production 5
Manufacture of Battery Systems 10
Use and Maintenance of Battery Systems 15
Disposal of Spent Batteries 17
Environmental and Human Health Impact Assessments 22
Cycle Life Analysis of Battery Systems 26
Chapter 2. Portable
in Europe: Sales,
Uses, Hoarding, Collection and Recycling 35
The European Market of Portable Rechargeable Batteries 39
Hoarding of Portable Rechargeable Batteries 43
Batteries in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) 61
Collection of Spent Rechargeable Batteries 66
Collection Efficiency and Recycling Rate 76
and Recycling in Japan 87
Treatment of Spent Primary Dry Cells 88
Recycling of Spent Lead-
Collection and Recycling Activities for Portable Rechargeable
Chapter 4. Ni-Cd Battery Collection and Recycling Programs in the U.S.A.
and Canada 105
N. England, D.B. Weinberg, K.L. Money and H. Morrow
The environmental issues 106
The NiCd Battery Recycling Problem 108
The Industry NiCd Battery Recycling Program 109
The INMETCO NiCd Battery Recycling Process 113
Chapter 5. Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ni-Cd Batteries 119
Introduction and Principal Findings 119
The Nature and Implications of Rechargeable Ni-Cd Battery
Ni-Cd Battery Recycling Esperiences Within the OECD 123
The RBRC Program – Canada and the U.S 136
Lessons Learned § Recommendations for Action 137
Chapter 6. Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Treatments 147 J. David
Treatment of Nickel Cadmium Batteries 150
1. Types of Process 150
2. Specific Processes for the Treatment of
Nickel Cadmium Batteries 155
Today’s Battery Recycling Companies 162
1. Europe 162
3. Korea 171
4. Japan 172
Chapter 7. Primary Battery Recycling in Europe 177
Battery Definition 177
Battery Collection 177
Battery Recycling 191
Battery Sorting 199
Integrating with Existing Recycling Operations 209
Chapter 8. Lead-Acid Batteries 225
A. Pescetelli, E. Paolucci and A. Tine
The Environmental and Health Impact 225
Economical Aspects 228
Lead Accumulator Structure 230
The Collection of Spent Batteries 234
Comparison With Other Countries of the European Union 239
Collection Modes and Recycling Techniques 251
Chapter 9. Recycling The Lithium Battery D.G. Miller and W. McLaughlin
The Hazards and Safety Aspects of Recycling
Lithium Batteries 267
Environmental Concerns of
Recycling Lithium Batteries
Sorting, Packaging, Storage, and Transporting of Lithium
Batteries for Recycling 274
Lithium Battery Recycling Technologies 277
The Toxco’s Background and Processing Method 279
Two of Toxco’s Typical Chemical Analyses 282
Chapter 10. Recycling of Electric
/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries 297
General Recycling Issues, and Drivers 304
Existing Methods for EV Battery Recycling 308
Optimized Recycling Processes for Advanced Batteries 317
Recycling Prospects for Future Advanced Batteries 320
Appendix A. Most Common Types of Commercial Batteries 329
Appendix B. Main Legislation on Battery Waste in the U.S.A. and E.U. 341
Subject Index 369
Collection and Recycling G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux and S.P. Wolsky (Editors) ©2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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