^ The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper).
Printed in The Netherlands.
About 40 billion batteries were produced in the year 2000 and this number is increasing at approximately 5% annually. A large number of these batteries contain hazardous materials. Batteries also contain significant quantities of important materials. Consequently the uncontrolled disposal of batteries presents both a major risk to health and the environment and a significant waste of valuable material resources. Recognizing the importance of controlling battery waste disposal, worldwide government and industry efforts have been initiated to collect and recycle such wastes.
Led by the OECD member states, legislation has been put in place mandating the collection and recycling of cadmium, lead and mercury batteries. Industry organizations have been established for the purpose of educating the consumer and developing collection/recycling programs. We may mention the Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) and the
Rechargeable Battery Recycling
Corporation (RBRC) in the U.S.A., and the European Portable Battery Association (EPBA) and CollectNiCad in Europe. As a consequence of these laws and programs, increasing quantities of spent batteries are being collected and recycled.
with their varied chemistries is a difficult task. The success of the industry in meeting this challenge has been important to the advancement of this effort.
We wish to express our deep gratitude to the contributors of the various chapters of this book and to the organizations and companies that have provided us general information and encouragement. Many of these groups have also contributed on a regular basis to the annual congresses organized first in the U.S.A. by one of us (S.P. Wolsky) – Seminar on Battery Waste Management – and later by others in Europe – Battery Recycling Congress.
Our goal has been to present in one volume a systematic and updated summary of the important aspects of the battery waste issue. As such this book will be of interest to all those working in this important field.
List of Contributors
J. DAVID, SNAM, 9 rue de la Garenne, F-38074, Saint Quentin Fallavier, France
N. ENGLAND, The Portable Rechargeable Battery Association, 1000 Parkwood Circle, Atlanta, GA 30339, U.S.A.
K. FUJIMOTO, Portable Rechargeable Battery Committee, Battery Association of Japan, Kikai, Shinkou Kaikan Building 5F, 3-5-8 Siba-Kouen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0011, Japan
R. JUNGST, Lithium Battery R&D Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM87185-0613, U.S.A.
W. McLAUGHLIN, Solid Team Inc., 148 Limestone, Claremont, CA 91711, U.S.A.
D.G. MILLER, Toxco Inc., 3200 E. Frontera, Anaheim, CA 92806, U.S.A.
K. L. MONEY, Inmetco, 245 Portersville Road, P.O. Box 720, Ellwood City, PA 16117, U.S.A.
H. MORROW, International Cadmium Association, 9222 Jeffery Road, P.O. Box 924, Great Falls, VA 22066-0924, U.S.A.
E. PAOLUCCI, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy
A. PESCETELLI, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy
A. TINE’, Texeco, Via Pomarico 58, 00178 Rome, Italy
N. WATSON, EPBA, Hazelwick Avenue, Crawley, Mallory House, West Sussex RH 10 1FQ, Great Britain
D.B. WEINBERG, Howrey Simon Arnold & White, 1299 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20004, U.S.A.
J.-P. WIAUX, Titalyse SA, 54bis Route des Acacias, CH-1227 Carouge, Geneva, Switzerland
Table of Contents
List of Contributors
Chapter 1. Environmental and Human Health Impact Assessments of
Battery Systems 1
Battery Raw Materials Production 5
Manufacture of Battery Systems 10
Use and Maintenance of Battery Systems 15
Disposal of Spent Batteries 17
Environmental and Human Health Impact Assessments 22
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