This eBook guide gives you all the information that you need to know to never have to buy batteries again. You will learn what it takes to recondition your batteries that you already have, with things that already have at your house or can easily get. You can save money by never having to buy batteries again But it gets better! You can make huge profits off of selling the batteries that you reconditioned at premium prices. You don’t have to have any technical know-how to learn how to do this All it takes is the information in this book! No matter what kind of batteries they are Even if they are car batteries, normal AA batteries, or forklift batteries, you can recondition them like new and sell them at full price or reuse them for yourself!
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Collection of Spent Portable Rechargeable Batteries Today, spent portable Ni-Cd batteries are mainly collected via four routes (Figure 23). The large majority comes through the sorting of batteries from general collection programs as those established in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Austria and other EU countries. Municipalities in Sweden and professionals organisations in Denmark are also contributing to their collection. Finally, in France a dedicated collection program for rechargeable batteries is in operation. Sorting Ni-Cd batteries from collected streams is a critical operation for those composition where zinc batteries are dominating. Industrial sorting technologies are in operation in Europe (Euro Bat Tri – 2000 and Wiaux -2000) but not in all countries and not with the same efficiency. It is believed that a significant fraction of Ni-Cd batteries collected are still processed with zinc batteries and are not accounted separately. In the future, the practise of…
In the field of portable rechargeable batteries for such electronic devices, as cellular phones, personal computers and video cameras, many changes occurred in their respective markets. For over 30 years, NiCd batteries have mainly been used as the power source, but NiMH and lithium ion batteries were developed in the early 1990’s and, since then, their demand has rapidly increased. For the collection and
of portable rechargeable batteries in Japan, both NiCd batteries and the products using NiCd batteries were specified as 1st and 2nd category products by the Law for the Promotion and Utilization of Recyclable Sources issued in June 1993. Since then, BAJ began a collection & recycling program of spent NiCd batteries. After that, other portable batteries like NiMH and lithium ion were gradually found in waste landfills. Considering that they contain so much valuable metals and that collection activity of NiCd battery should be further strengthened, BAJ made a decision to…
The lead-acid battery has been the rechargeable energy storage technology of choice since the earliest development of EVs because of its widespread availability, relatively low cost, and generally user friendly characteristics. Consequently, an infrastructure for collection and
of these batteries already exists. In fact, recycled lead forms a significant percentage of the lead used in fabricating new batteries. Because the market for lead-acid batteries is already extremely large, even a significant penetration of the EV application by this battery chemistry is not expected to have a noticeable impact on the ability of industry to continue the present high recycling rate. A study was conducted in 1996 and confirmed this low impact of increased EV use on the lead-acid battery recycling infrastructure by projecting the increased amount of recycled lead that would result 18 . Although most of the regulations that are currently spurring market development are viewed as…
The symbol referred to in paragraph 1 of this Annex shall cover 3 of the area of the largest side of the battery, accumulator or battery pack, up to a maximum size of 5 x 5 cm. For cylindrical cells the symbol shall cover 1.5 of the surface area of the battery or accumulator and shall have a maximum size of 5 x 5 cm. Where the size of the battery, accumulator or battery pack is such that the symbol would be smaller than 0.4 x 0.4 cm, the battery, accumulator or battery pack need not to be marked but a symbol measuring 1 x 1 cm shall be printed on the packaging. Where batteries, accumulators or battery packs are incorporated into appliances in such a way that the symbol referred to in paragraph lof this Annex is fully visible without having to remove the batteries, accumulators or battery packs from the appliance, the appliance need not to be marked.
Led by the OECD member states, legislation has been put in place mandating the collection and
of cadmium, lead and mercury batteries. Industry organizations have been established for the purpose of educating the consumer and developing collection recycling programs. We may mention the Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) and the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) in the U.S.A., and the European Portable Battery Association (EPBA) and CollectNiCad in Europe. As a consequence of these laws and programs, increasing quantities of spent batteries are being collected and recycled. Recycling batteries with their varied chemistries is a difficult task. The success of the industry in meeting this challenge has been important to the advancement of this effort. We wish to express our deep gratitude to the contributors of the various chapters of this book and to the organizations and companies that have provided us general information and encouragement. Many…
technologies are only now being fully developed. The marketability of the components and the labor dollars invested to process the batteries are the driving considerations. Many research oriented agencies have proposed recycling methodologies which consider the battery chemicals as simply chemicals. Usually the battery characteristics are either overlooked completely or given inadequate planning. The neutralization of chemicals is the primary focus and either economics or safety is limited (at best). For these reasons many lithium battery recycling operations have started but most could not sustain either economic or physical losses. Some of the secondary lithium cells produced today contain cobalt compounds. Cobalt is a valuable metal openly traded for 10- 15 per pound on the open market. At this price, cobalt recovery is the primary goal of several recycling facilities that only accept lithium ion batteries. The authors fear that as other cheaper materials are found,…
Lithium batteries are no exception. Even when discharged, the batteries contain some form of lithium, organic solvents, and other chemicals most of which are toxic. When not fully discharged, the batteries have the potential to start fires. Aside from the known environmental concerns of today, it is not unlikely that in the future new environmental requirements or concerns may evolve from the disposal of batteries. In one eastern block country there is a huge problem with lead acid batteries contaminating ground water. One middle eastern country had a landfill fire that burned out of control for many days due to lithium batteries. In North America several lithium-
facilities have been shut down for environmental reasons. The only sure solution is appropriate recycling. So, if one is trying to select a lithium battery recycling facility, what does he look for to make sure the facility is in compliance with environmental requirements It should…
Battery manufacturers are producing more rechargeable batteries each year. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association has estimated that the U.S. demand for rechargeable batteries is growing twice as fast as the demand for nonrechargeable batteries. The Rechargeable Battery
Corporation (RBRC) started a nationwide take-back program in 1994 for the collection and recycling of used nickel-cadmium batteries. The RBRC expanded in 2001 to include all portable rechargeable batteries in its take-back program. This is the first nationwide take-back program that involves an entire U.S. industry. Much of this progress has come in response to far-reaching legislation at the State and the Federal level in the United States. Starting in 1989, 13 States took the lead by adopting laws (including battery labeling requirements) to facilitate the collection and recycling of used rechargeable batteries. In 1996, the U.S. Congress passed the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery…
Every year in the United States, billions of batteries are bought, used, and thrown out. In 1998 alone, over 3 billion industrial and household batteries were sold. The demand for batteries can be traced largely to the rapid increase in automobiles, cordless, portable products such as cellular phones, video cameras, laptop computers, and battery-powered tools and toys. Seventy million vehicle batteries are produced each year in the United States. About 80 of discarded lead-acid batteries are being collected and recycled. Lead-acid batteries contain about 15-20 lb of lead per battery and about 1-2 gallons of sulfuric acid. Vehicle batteries are banned from disposal in Nebraska landfills as of September 1, 1994. Heavy metals have the potential to enter the
from the leachate or runoff from landfills. It is estimated that nonrecycled lead-acid batteries produce about 65 of the lead in the municipal waste stream. When burned, some heavy metals such as mercury may vaporize and…
An Act To phase out the use of mercury in batteries and provide for the efficient and cost-effective collection and
or proper disposal of used nickel cadmium batteries, small sealed lead-acid batteries, and certain other batteries, and for other purposes. SECTION 1. SHOT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act. SEC. 2. FINDINGS. The Congress finds that- (1) it is in the public interest to- (A) phase out the use of mercury in batteries and provide for the efficient and cost-effective collection and recycling or proper disposal of used nickel cadmium batteries, small sealed lead-acid batteries, and other regulated batteries and (B) educate the public concerning the collection, recycling, and proper disposal of such batteries (2) uniform national labeling requirements for regulated batteries, rechargeable consumer products, and product packaging will significantly benefit programs for regulated battery collection and…
As seen in the previous section there are numerous types of lithium batteries. In this section, we shall look at the generic hazards of primary (with liquid or solid cathode) and rechargeable batteries. There is much controversy over the reactivity of several individual chemistry types. It is the authors opinion that there are inherent hazards associated with any battery type or energy source and in most situations the hazards and size are directly related. In a similar scenario, lithium batteries in general cannot be categorized into being more or less hazardous than any other chemistry without knowing the exact type and size of the systems to be compared.
lithium rechargeable battery systems does not involve elemental lithium under normal conditions. It is the authors belief that a fully charged large nickel metal-hydride battery has the potential to be much more reactive than a comparably sized lithium secondary. The metal-hydride battery worst-case hazards include the…
Contribution to MSW, state jurisdictions, especially those with heavy commitments to new incinerators, began to propose legislation and regulation to divert NiCd batteries from the waste stream, and several even mandated NiCd battery collection programs which in turn led to voluntary action by some companies. However, shortly after issuance of the Franklin Report, EPA changed its test protocol for determining what wastes should be classified as hazardous. The new test protocol, the TCLP test, required that used NiCd batteries first be crushed or cut to a certain size much smaller than the size of the battery itself thereby exposing the internal nickel and cadmium electrodes, and then placed in an acetic acid solution for about a day to simulate the relative amount of nickel or cadmium leaching from the batteries into landfill leachate over a protracted period of time. Not suprisingly, used NiCd batteries failed the TCLP test and were classified as hazardous waste. As a consequence,…
Nonetheless, concern exists that after the useful lives of these batteries has ended, they may become a source of cadmium and nickel that reaches the environment.
Ni-Cd batteries addresses this concern and also conserves valuable natural resources. However, used Ni-Cd batteries do not trade freely as commodities because the cost of collecting them for recycling exceeds the value of their reclaimed constituents. Faced with this challenge, companies that manufacture and use these batteries have developed and implemented collection programs in several national jurisdictions, and are now working to coordinate these activities internationally. A successful used Ni-Cd battery collection program requires support from several economic sectors and entities that operate a variety of convenient collection points retailers, product service centers, municipalities, and institutional generators. OECD member nations implement strict hazardous waste handling requirements to protect against…
Corporation is a not-for-profit corporation funded by rechargeable battery manufacturers and created to implement and maintain Ni-Cd battery collection and recycling programs in the U.S. and in Canada. The RBRC program, Charge Up to Recycle , has created various recycling plans to collect Ni-Cd batteries, which are then sent to INMETCO (Ellwood City, Pennsylvania) for processing and recycling. At the facility, the nickel and iron are separated from the cadmium and shipped to specialty steel producers for use in stainless steel products. The recovered high-purity cadmium is used to produce new Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries. Within the Charge Up to Recycle program, three different plans for collecting used Ni-Cd batteries are set up for retailers, communities, and business& public agencies. To reach high recycling levels, widespread public education is carried out. The recycling program is paid for by the rechargeable power industry. To date,…
plants using this type of process but without any preliminary sorting operation have 3 problems – In 1989, M.G. Horn of IRELAND ALLOYS LTD presented to the 6th International Cadmium Conference in Paris the experimental study of a process based on crushing industrial battery plates followed by screening into different size grading values and magnetic separation. The purpose was to concentrate the cadmium so as to have to treat only a minimal fraction of the weight of the complete battery.
needs for the Li-ion battery chemistry involves testing of improved methods for recovering alternative cathode materials. Because the economic incentive to reclaim these materials will likely be less than for cobalt, it will be important for the processes to be highly efficient and necessary to use inexpensive reagents. Other opportunities are in recovery of carbon anodes. It is preferable to process them back into new battery anodes because this would be the most valuable use for the carbon material. However, this will be a difficult task requiring extensive study before feasibility can be proven.
State Legislation Affecting Rechargeable Batteries The 1996 Battery Act eased the burden on battery
programs by mandating national, uniform labeling requirements for Ni-Cd and certain small sealed lead-acid batteries and by making the Universal Waste Rule effective in all 50 states. The Battery Act preempts state labeling requirements for these battery types and state legislative and regulatory authority for the collection, storage, and transportation of Ni-Cd and other covered batteries. States can, however, adopt standards for battery recycling and disposal that are more stringent than existing Federal standards. States can also adopt more stringent requirements concerning the allowable mercury content in batteries. Several states have passed legislation mandating additional reductions in mercury beyond those in the Battery Act and prohibiting or restricting the disposal in MSW of batteries with the highest heavy metal content (i.e., Ni-Cd, small sealed lead-acid, and…
Figure 10 Schematic Presentation of a Ni-MH Battery
INMETCO is capable of handling both portable and industrial NiCd batteries, and is permitted to recycle up to 10,000 tons of NiCd batteries per year. Since INMETCO is primarly a stainless steel recycler, the economics of their NiCd battery recycling process is not as dependent on current cadmium prices as are those of recyclers who are dedicated to NiCd battery recycling alone. In Japan, the largest cadmium consumer and the largest NiCd battery producer in the world, there is fairly extensive pyrometallurgical recycling of NiCd batteries. Both Kansai Catalyst and Toho Zinc integrate their NiCd battery recycling into the zinc cadmium refinery plant, and recover cadmium and iron nickel oxides from a rotary kiln process operated at 1000 C. Industrial batteries are dismantled and sealed cells are first crushed prior to the high temperature treatment. The cadmium oxide is then introduced into the zinc refinery circuit where it…
Little follow-on evaluation has occurred for Ni MH battery
processes since the earlier studies described above were completed in about 1994 in spite of the potential benefits that were shown 35 . Mitsui Mining and Smelting Company Limited reported one additional study in 1995 36 , Nickel, cobalt and rare earth elements were the major materials that were targeted for recovery from the battery. Following mechanical processing, a sulfuric acid leach was applied as the first step in a hydrometallurgical process. Rare earth elements can be separated by the double salt method and then other impurities (copper, zinc) removed by solvent extraction or sulfide precipitation. The final solution contains nickel and cobalt, which are recovered in high purity by electrowinning. A conceptual flow diagram of the process was presented, but continuous testing and other evaluations had not yet been done.
Economics is an important consideration when designing a
process. Some generic constraints that determine whether recycling is economically viable have been discussed 5 , These include the ability of the market to absorb the large quantity of recycled material that could result in the long term assuming that it is not recycled directly into new batteries. Market size is likely to differ for each of the specific materials that can be recovered. Price collapse or possibly an inability to sell the reclaimed products at all could be the result if a limited market is flooded with recycled material. A fundamental precept of chemical process economics (the Exclusion Principle) states that high-priced materials tend to have limited markets, while high volume materials have low unit prices 10 . It is therefore unrealistic to expect to enter a large size market for a particular commodity and command a high unit price.
Total life cycle analyses may be utilized to establish the relative environmental and human health impacts of battery systems over their entire lifetime, from the production of the raw materials to the ultimate disposal of the spent battery. The three most important factors determining the total life cycle impact appear to be battery composition, battery performance, and the degree to which spent batteries are recycled after their useful lifetime. This assessment examines both rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries, and includes lead acid, nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion, carbon zinc and alkaline manganese batteries. Rechargeable battery systems obviously enjoy a great advantage in this respect since they may be recharged and reused many times. However, other factors such as the battery voltage, ampere-hour rating, cycle life, charging efficiency and self-discharge characteristics may also be important in establishing the total amounts of hazardous waste…
Collection of Portable Rechargeable Ni-Cd Batteries in European Countries (Normalised data on the basis of grams per inhabitant per year source CollectNiCad) Figure 27. Collection of Portable Rechargeable Ni-Cd Batteries in European Countries (Normalised data on the basis of grams per inhabitant per year source CollectNiCad) As presented previously in Figure 24, collected quantities of portable rechargeable batteries have been increasing significantly during the last years and a continuous progression of collected volumes is expected as a result of several parameters
Chemical hazards broadly fall into two categories 1) physical and health hazards from exposure to these materials during battery handling and dismantlement, and 2) environmental hazards from disposal. If these materials are considered hazardous waste because they are listed by the EPA or categorized as characteristic wastes, then they can only be disposed of in specially designated landfill facilities. Characteristic wastes are classes of materials that are identified as exhibiting leachability, flammability, and corrosivity reactivity. This adds to the cost and could justify further expenditures to reclaim or recycle these materials even if they are not inherently valuable. An assessment of the health impacts from reclamation of automotive batteries was completed for the California EPA, and a report was issued in 1999 12 . This study compares the relative impact of
nine different types of EV batteries in terms Table 2 shows the health and environmental impact score that was…
Industrial Ni-Cd batteries are rugged, long-life, cheap batteries capable of operating at high rates. The so-called pocket-plate battery can stand overcharge, polarity reversal and short-circuits. To better utilize the electrode materials, two other structures have been developed the fiber plate and the plastic-bonded plate. The latter has afforded improved performance characteristics (e.g. an energy density of 110 Wh 1). The discharge voltage is about 1.2 V. Under normal conditions, an industrial battery can reach 2,000 cycles and lifetimes of 8-25 years. This battery can practically be used in all industrial applications, with capacities ranging from 10 to 1,000 Ah.
In order to evaluate the impact of batteries that are neither in home storage nor collected, it is necessary to evaluate the quantities of batteries present in the municipal waste streams. The mass balance of portable Ni-Cd batteries introduced into the market is presented in Figure 19. A significant fraction of Ni-Cd batteries are collected separately. It is estimated that more than 63 (or 24,000 tonnes year) of the quantity available for collection are Figure 19. The Annual Mass Balance of Marketed Portable Ni-Cd Batteries (2000) processed for
in dedicated processes for the recovery of cadmium and its reuse in new battery production. A smaller fraction (400 tonnes year) of portable Ni-Cd batteries collected by industrial waste management companies is either processed with industrial waste and treated for recycling in non-dedicated processes like steel and lead recycling plants, or introduced legally in landfills according to local authorization procedures. Only a minor…
rates are evaluated , batteries in temporary storage should not be considered as they are not a waste. One should take into account the quantities available for collection and not the quantities introduced into the market. As we have seen in Section 3 of this chapter, a significant fraction of the rechargeable batteries remains in home storage (in use or not in use). As long as they remain is such a position they have not to be considered as a waste. If one considers the specific case of spent portable Ni-Cd batteries, one can propose the following definitions. The recycling rate for Ni-Cd batteries is the ratio between the quantity of batteries processed for recycling over the quantity of spent Ni-Cd batteries generated at source and introduced in the waste stream by the end-user. In this approach, one can consider that the quantity of spent Ni-Cd batteries generated at source is equal to the quantity that the end-user is eliminating via several…
As it is presented in Figure 29, in Europe the quantity of spent Ni-Cd batteries processed for
has reached the volume of 2,040 tonnes in the year 2000. When compared to the quantity identified in MSW during the previous years (600 to 800 tonnes), it comes that the recycling rate of Ni-Cd batteries at the european level is higher than 70 . This calculation is presented in Table 6. It is obviously estimated that Ni-Cd batteries left in a hoarding position are not available for collection. Indeed, according to the UN definition, these batteries do not represent a waste generated at source.
It is obvious that the evaluation of the collection and
efficiency of Ni-Cd batteries, and of portable Ni-Cd batteries in particular, is a difficult task to achieve. This is the reason why an agreement should not be signed if there is not a well documented and mutual understanding of the definition of data to acquire, parameters to evaluate and criteria like collection rates, quantities available for collection, quantity found in municipal waste, recycling rates, hoarding, etc. Certainly, the methodology to adopt to evaluate the quantity of Ni-Cd batteries found in MSW becomes a critical parameter. The methodology to follow in order to measure this parameter is of prime importance. The knowledge of the practise of waste management by consumers is a recent issue. Not all parameters of this dynamic process are known. It has been demonstrated in this chapter that there is no direct correlation between the quantity of rechargeable batteries (and equipment) purchased during one…
The never-ending search for the most efficient battery (lightest weight, highest energy) has gone on since the batteries were initially developed. The LeClanche cell, lead acid and carbon zinc batteries sustained the portable electric world until the latter part of the 20th century. During this period the technology base of
began drastically expanding due to breakthroughs in microelectronics, software, digital systems, communications technology, and electric transportation. It seems that each year brings us the convenience of some new device that is battery powered. In the past 20 years the desire for a better battery has turned into a necessity. During the 90’s came one of the biggest breakthroughs in rechargeable batteries since the development of the Nickel Cadmium lithium ion batteries, with liquid or polymeric electrolytes, were developed. These lithium rechargeable batteries operate on the premise that the electrical potential of lithium metal is approached, but…
Mechanically rechargeable, zinc-air batteries have been tested in Europe in postal trucks 41 . In this system, spent zinc anodes are removed from the battery and electrochemically reprocessed. A replacement battery containing charged anodes is loaded into the vehicle to minimize refueling time. Although a
process has not been designed, the battery materials are non-toxic and should be easy to handle. The cells do contain KOH electrolyte that would have to be neutralized. Besides the zinc anodes, which are continually recycled during the life of the battery, the materials of construction are steel, carbon, plastic, copper, and nickel. No recycling cost estimates have been made, but the recovered materials would not be very high in value so the process would have to be inexpensive to be economically viable.
These batteries, as the sealed lead-acid ones, allow oxygen recombination on overcharge, so that they can be sealed and need no maintenance. The electrodes reactions are those mentioned for conventional batteries. However, in this case, the negative electrode has a higher capacity than the positive. During charge, the latter is fully oxidized first and starts to evolve 02, which migrates to the negative electrode and reacts The most common cells are cylindrical (0.05 to 35 Ah) or button-type (0.02 to 0.5 Ah). However, sealed Ni-Cd batteries of 200-400 Ah have been built for EV applications.
The chemistry of these batteries is that of conventional lead-acid batteries. However, they have a unique characteristics. The oxygen generated on overcharge is recombined in the cell and there is no water loss. Indeed, oxygen reacts at the negative electrode Sealed lead-acid batteries are in both cylindrical and prismatic shapes. The cyclindrical ones (usually designed as SLA batteries) have excellent high-rate characteristics. Other than in portable devices, sealed batteries can be used in standby applications, e.g. telephone exchange stations, were they are kept in float charge. In this case too, oxygen recombination is possible. Small lead-acid batteries lag behind other systems in terms of electrochemical performance. However, they have a notably high shelf-life and an attractive price.
The plant permit from the Court of Environment, dated 1996, includes treatment of 2,000 tonnes of used batteries while the present capacity is approx. 1,500 tonnes of industrial batteries or 800 tonnes of industrial + 400 tonnes of portables. Ni Cd batteries, portable as well as industrial, are received from the whole world. All internal production waste containing cadmium is treated at the plant (Figure 1). The recovered cadmium (< 99.95 pure) is directly used for the manufacturing of industrial batteries. Figure 4. Schematic Presentation of the Ni-Cd Battery Treatment at Accurec Figure 4. Schematic Presentation of the Ni-Cd Battery Treatment at Accurec
The first commercial Li-ion battery technology was produced by Sony and they are also the only Li-ion battery manufacturer to develop their own
process 29 . Production of Li-ion batteries by Sony began in 1991 and a battery-recycling project began the next year in conjunction with Sumitomo Metals and Mining Co., Ltd. The Sony Li-ion cell contains a lithium cobalt dioxide (LiCoCh) cathode and cobalt comprises 15 to 20 of the battery weight. Since cobalt is a relatively expensive material compared to the other battery constituents, its recovery is the primary objective in the recycling process. Besides the cobalt, which is recovered as cobalt chloride, iron and copper are also recycled from the used Li-ion cells, but the lithium is not reclaimed in the Sony process. If the cathode is changed to another material at some point, a major impact on the recycling economics could occur.
batteries and waste products from nickel-cadmium batteries but several developments have occurred in the last twenty years. The tables below show collection figures for Europe for both industrial batteries and sealed units and power packs. Used Battery Collection and Recycling G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux and S.P. Wolsky (Editors) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Primary Battery Recycling in Europe Neil Watson The term general purpose consumer battery can be used to describe any portable battery system. This includes both single cells, such as those used in torches, radios or other similar devices and battery packs used within mobile communication and cordless tools for example. The term covers both rechargeable chemistries, as well as the more abundant single use chemistries. The most common primary batteries in use today are the zinc-carbon and the alkaline-manganese battery systems. Together, they constitute in excess of 90 by weight…
This section of this paper examines the key elements necessary in establishing a successful rechargeable Ni-Cd battery
program. As background, it is important that the reader understand certain basic terminology and relationships. Consumer use of the term battery in fact often extends to several different items. The basic building block of a battery is a cell – the combination of materials that produces electrical current in a predictable fashion. Some batteries consist of a single cell. More commonly, however, a series of cells are connected in a single package. In the trade, this is commonly referred to as a battery pack, but consumers often call it simply a battery. Cells and battery packs can be included in products sold to consumers – such as portable telephones or power drills – or sold independently. In the trade, the former category is generally referred to as original equipment manufacture or OEM, while the latter is referred to as replacement. A number of channels…
companies have also formed alliances. Because of its use of the Li-ion battery in its Altra EV, Nissan reviewed future recycling capacity for spent Li-ion batteries. The company formed a partnership with Toxco after finding that a significant lithium battery recycling capacity shortfall could be anticipated. Toxco would share a percentage of its long-range processing capacity with Nissan, and also An additional benefit derived from the Nissan-Toxco agreement is that it has provided renewed enthusiasm for a lithium recycling facility in California. In 1992, it was difficult to obtain a permit for a lithium recycling facility in California because of strict solid and hazardous waste disposal regulations. However, the current regional director of the California Department of Toxic Substances Control has visited the Toxco facility in British Columbia (BC) and met with the BC Ministry of Environment regulators 17 . As a result of that review, a lithium battery…
Another conventional battery technology that has been considered for EVs is Ni Cd. Although capable of somewhat better performance than lead-acid in some respects, this battery is also more costly and does not equal the performance levels possible with advanced battery systems. It is unlikely to see widespread use in EV applications in the U.S. although there are reported to be more than 10,000 EVs using Ni Cd batteries presently on the road in Europe 23 . Because of the toxicity of cadmium, which precludes disposal, and the value of the nickel, there are well-developed processes for
of Ni Cd batteries. Most of the facilities in Europe are dedicated Ni Cd battery recycling plants. Since 1995, consumer and industrial Ni Cd battery recycling in the U.S. has been primarily done at the International Metals Reclamation Company, Inc. (INMETCO) using a process licensed from SAFT NIFE. The cadmium is distilled from the plates using a low temperature thermal process, and the material…
Last Updated on Fri, 19 Feb 2016
My group has specialized on the interactions between the glaciers and the climate We study the micro-climate of glaciers, we have built weather stations right on top of the glaciers because in the past very little has been done on this. But these are automatic stations, we go there and install them, from time to time we service them and do some additional measurements. Really huge measurement campaigns, as we used to do it 20 years ago when we went for a whole summer onto a glacier, have become rare. Instrumentation, especially battery technology, has improved enormously. Today, we have stations in Antarctica, the Alps, Norway, Iceland, so quite a few.
Within the U.S., the power storage battery industry is the largest end-user of lead, accounting for 83 of domestically consumed lead. Industrial demand for batteries is rising due both to the growth in demand for stationary batteries used in telecommunications and back-up power systems for computers, lighting, and security systems, as well as an increased need for mobile batteries used in fork lifts and other battery-powered vehicles. Additional lead end-uses and users of consequence are ammunition, consumers of lead oxides used in television glass and computers, construction (including radiation shielding) and protective coatings, and miscellaneous uses such as ballasts, ceramics, and crystal glass.
Interviews of 18 of the 27 incident households showed that only 6 (33 ) had a carbon monoxide detector present, but only one alarm went off. The other 4 had dead batteries and one sent a signal to a remote security system that was unable to alert the household by telephone. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that because there has shown to be no safe distance for generator placement, there should be functional carbon monoxide detectors in all households (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006b). Our data show that responders were injured by carbon monoxide while sleeping in temporary housing (camper). Therefore this recommendation should be expanded to temporary housing as well.
EPA Federal universal wastes are (a) batteries such as nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) and small sealed lead-acid batteries, which are found in many common items in the business and home setting, including electronic equipment, mobile telephones, portable computers, and emergency backup lighting (b) agricultural pesticides that are recalled under certain conditions and unused, pesticides that are collected and managed as part of a waste pesticide collection program, and the pesticides that are unwanted for a number of reasons, such as being banned, obsolete, damaged, or no longer needed due to changes in cropping patterns or other factors (c) thermostats that can contain
Abstract The Fourth Assessment Report released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 was unequivocal in its message that warming of the global climate system is now occurring, and found, with very high confidence that it was very likely that the observed warming was due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). To address the problem, the IPCC developed an outline of approaches to reduce GHG emissions to desired levels. The expected changes in technologies and practices needed to mitigate emissions of GHGs will lead to changes in the impacts to the environment associated with energy production and use. Some of these changes will be beneficial, but others will not. This chapter identifies some of the potential environmental impacts (other than the intended mitigation of climate change) of implementing GHG mitigation strategies, but will not attempt to quantify those impacts or their costs. Included are discussions of the impacts of implementing…
Consequences as large amounts of ore would need to be processed to obtain the necessary amounts of metals, even at the relatively low levels of penetration assumed by Lave et al. in their analysis (11 of the fleet for NiMH and 22 for lithium ion) 69 . Similarly, Andersson and Rade evaluated the long-term resource constraints associated with substantial penetration of
. Such increased demand would likely result in increased metal prices and subsequent increases in metal mining and refining 70 . Vimmerstedt et al. evaluated the
of lead from lead-acid batteries that could be used in vehicle propulsion systems, and noted that lead recovery facilities may need to install additional infrastructure such as backup power generation to ensure adequate environmental protection 71 . Current battery recycling programs recover 90-95 of lead in batteries, but presumably this would increase as replacement of propulsion batteries moved to professional shops rather than being…
The secondary production of refined lead amounts to the processing of recycled lead to prepare it for reuse. The vast majority of this recycled lead comes from scrapped lead acid batteries. The lead acid batteries are either crushed using a hammer mill and entered into the smelting process with or without desulphurization or they are smelted whole (Sjardin, 2003). Traditional blast furnaces, Imperial Smelting Furnaces, electric arc furnaces, electric resistance furnaces, reverbatory furnaces, Isasmelt furnaces, Queneau-Schumann-Lurgi furnaces, and Kivcet furnaces can all be used for the smelting of these batteries and other
lead (Sjardin, 2003). As with the furnaces used for primary lead bullion production, these furnaces gene
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